The Stolen Wines of WWII 二战中掠夺的葡萄酒

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English (英文原声) Isabell

Chinese (中文原声)晴格格


A modern view of Berchtesdagen in Bavaria, among the mountains.  &  巴伐利亚州的贝希特斯加登、群山中的现代景观。

WWII was a dark time in general, global destruction occurred between 1939-1945, displacing people and property. Adolf Hitler had risen to power in Germany and Austria and had pitted himself against European and American Allies. Throughout his reign of terror, he amassed hundreds of thousands of precious pieces of art, property and wine. During the war, he brought much of his stolen booty to his mountain property in Berchtesgaden, located in the south district of Berchtesgaden Land in Bavaria, near the border with Austria, some 30 km (19 mi) south of Salzburg and 180 km (110 mi) southeast of Munich. This was a luxurious mountain retreat where he and his most loyal generals had vacation homes. 

总而言之,第二次世界大战是一个黑暗的时代。这场发生在1939-1945年间的全球毁灭,使得民众流离失所、财产付之一炬。阿道夫·希特勒在德国和奥地利掌权,并与欧美盟军对抗。在恐怖统治期间,他掠夺了数十万件珍贵的艺术品、财产和葡萄酒。战争期间,他将大部分偷来的赃物带到他位于山上的房产:位于巴伐利亚州、贝希特斯加登山区南部。临近奥地利边境,萨尔茨堡以南约30公里(19英里),慕尼黑东南约180公里(110英里)。一个奢华的山区静修所,这里有着他和他最忠诚的将军们的度假屋。


An American soldier enjoying the view atop the Eagle’s nest with a good bottle of Cognac from the famous cellar. &   一名美国士兵手持希特勒著名酒窖里的一瓶上好的白兰地,在鹰巢顶欣赏美景。

The Kehlsteinhaus (known as the Eagle’s Nest in English-speaking countries) is a Third Reich-era building that had been erected atop the summit of the Kehlstein, above the Obersalzberg near Berchtesgaden. This where Hitler had stashed over 500,000 bottles of stolen wines. It seems a bit excessive for someone who never drank, but he likely stole them as a sign of status and because he could. Hitler was famous for his lavish gatherings where he served this wine to his guests. But where did all this wine come from?

建筑名称Kehlsteinhaus德语意为“鹰巢”(在讲英语国家里被称为“Eagle’s Nest”)是第三帝国时代的建筑,建造在Kehlstein山顶上,贝希特斯加登附近的上萨尔茨堡山之上。希特勒就是在这里藏匿了50多万瓶抢夺来的葡萄酒。对一个从不喝酒的人来说,如此之数目似乎有点过分。然而他可能会把偷来的名酒视为身份的象征,因为他做得到。希特勒因他举办提供奢华葡萄酒的聚会派对而闻名。然而这些酒是从何而来呢?


Moet & Chandon trying to hide their bottles from the Germans   &   酩悦香槟正试图藏起他们的酒以避免让德国人发现

The wine came from all over Europe but, it was the French who had paid the dearest in terms of wine. The French regarded their wines as synonymous with their cultural heritage, to lose them was tantamount to sacrilege. When the German broke through the French lines in 1939, the wineries, and restaurants scrambled to hide their most precious vintages, however they were unable to hide them all. They began building walls to block off rooms with their most prized wines and champagne’s. In order to fool the Germans into missing these brand-new additions to their cellars and basements, they collected thousand’s spiders and placed them on the fresh walls to allow them to start weaving cobwebs. They also relabeled their newer less important wines, and then teamed up with the local carpet cleaners, collecting the dust from the carpets and sprinkling it over the newer wine bottles in order for it to seem like they had been placed there years earlier. 

这些葡萄酒来自欧洲各地,然而要属法国人被抢夺去了最昂贵的葡萄酒。法国人认为他们的葡萄酒是其文化遗产的同义词,失去它们就无异于亵渎。当德国人在1939年突破法国防线时,酿酒厂和餐馆争先恐后地藏起他们最珍贵的葡萄酒,然而他们无法将所有的酒全部隐藏起来。他们开始建造围墙,用来堵住他们存放最珍贵的葡萄酒和香槟的房间。为了欺骗德国人,使他们错过在地窖和地下室里这些全新的墙面,他们收集了数千只蜘蛛,并把它们放在新墙上,让它们开始织网。他们还为较新年份、不太名贵的葡萄酒重新贴上了标签,然后同当地的清洁地毯的师傅合作,收集地毯上的灰尘,并洒在新的酒瓶上,让它们看起来像是已经陈放了许多年。


Disgruntled workers in the French vineyards, trying to produce enough wine for the Third Reich     &     法国葡萄园中心怀不满的工人,试图生产足够供第三帝国饮用的葡萄酒

As the war progressed the Germans demanded as many as 400,000 bottles per week for Germany — a nearly impossible order to fill and often the French producers were barely paid in exchange. The resistance movement played a huge role in saving wines from the Germans, they would hijack shipments and replace the barrel contents with water, quite often landing these people in jail. 

随着战争的进行,德国人每周为德国索要多达40万瓶葡萄酒——这几乎是不可能完成的订单,而且法国生产商通常只能得到很少的报酬。抵抗运动在从德国人手中拯救葡萄酒方面发挥了巨大的作用。他们会劫持货物并用水替换桶里的葡萄酒,经常这些人被送进监狱。


The 101st parachute division celebrating atop the eagles nest -with cellar wine     &     101号伞兵师用希特勒酒窖的酒在鹰巢顶上庆祝

Finally, in 1945 when the war had drawn to a close, days after Hitler’s suicide, the French and the Americans started a race to get to Berchtesgaden and Hitler’s Eagles nest. The French were particularly driven to get their first since they knew that their cherished heritage had been hidden there – the wine. The French reached the Nest first and it is said that a 23-year old sergeant from the Champagne region was the first Allied soldier to make it to the ironclad door where he found half a million bottles of the finest wines known to man – including hundreds of cases of 1928 Salon champagne, which he himself had seen the Germans take five years earlier. 

最后,在1945年,当战争结束时,也就是希特勒自杀后的几天。法国人和美国人开始了一场前往贝希特斯加登、希特勒鹰巢的比赛。法国人特别渴望能够第一个到达,因为他们知道其珍贵的遗产——葡萄酒、就藏在那里。最后法国人首先抵达鹰巢,据说来自香槟地区的一名23岁中士是第一个到达铁甲大门的盟军士兵,他在那里发现了50万瓶人世间最好的葡萄酒—— 包括数百箱1928年沙龙香槟。而且据说他本人在五年前亲眼目睹了德国人抢走这些香槟。


Wine    &    葡萄酒

The real challenge became getting as many bottles as humanly possible down the steep mountain without breaking them. The soldiers got creative and used medical stretchers to carry the bottles down to the bottom, from there tanks, trucks, other vehicles were stripped bare to make room for the wine – soldiers threw out clothes, tools, ammunitions as well as emptied their canteens, refilling them with fabled wines like the Latour ’29, Mouton ’34 and Lafite ’37. Imagining this scene is quite exciting, as well as their lively trip home, probably drinking what they could of all that wine! 

真正的挑战要数如何在不打碎瓶子的情况下,尽可能多地将这些葡萄酒从陡峭的大山取下来。士兵们很有创意,用医用担架将酒瓶一路抬到山底。山底的坦克、卡车及其他车辆通通被剥光,腾出空间来放酒——士兵们扔掉衣服、工具、弹药,倒空水壶,用传说中的葡萄酒如29年的拉图、34年木桐和37年拉菲将其重新装满。单单是想象这一幕就足以令人兴奋,还有他们愉悦欢腾的归家之旅。大概一路上喝光了所有的酒吧!

101st Airborne enjoying a drink of wine from the cellar on the Eagle’s nest 号伞兵师用希特勒酒窖的酒在鹰巢顶上庆祝

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